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Aquatic Fauna in Peril: The Southeastern Perspective

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Aquatic Fauna in Peril > Jeopardized Southeastern Freshwater Fishes: A Search for Causes
Illustration by Tom Tarpley.

Jeopardized Southeastern Freshwater Fishes: A Search for Causes

By David A. Etnier

Etnier and Starnes (1991) analyzed the approximately 300 taxa of native Tennessee fishes in an attempt to detect patterns associated with jeopardization or imperilment. Their analysis indicated that two habitat types (medium-sized rivers and springs) and two families (Ictaluridae and Percidae) contained disproportionately large numbers of jeopardized taxa. At the other extreme, no jeopardized Tennessee fish taxa were characteristic of quiet water (lentic) habitats, and none were centrarchids. In the following admittedly very subjective analysis I attempt to expand coverage to include all native freshwater fishes in a broadly defined southeastern United States, and to include reasons for imperilment.

Analysis Methods

For the purposes of this analysis, the southeastern United States includes the Ohio and Susquehanna rivers and their tributaries, south through peninsular Florida and to the Gulf of Mexico, and west to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Diadromous fishes (those that migrate to or from the sea to spawn) are included, but euryhaline species such as Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow) and marine fishes such as Trinectes maculatus (hogchoker) are not. Nomenclature is essentially that used by Robins et al. (1991) except that Hybopsis is retained as a valid genus in Cyprinidae as has been done by Jenkins and Burkhead (1993; page 345) and Etnier and Starnes (1993; page 174). I have assigned preferred habitat (big river, medium river, creeks, headwaters [streams of first or second order], springs, caves, lentic, or diadromous) based on available published information, input from colleagues, and personal experience. In many cases where an obvious choice of preferred habitat was not possible, two habitats are listed (see Appendix 1), but the first of the two listed habitats is the one utilized in the analysis. This occurred most commonly within the continuum of lotic habitats. If, for instance, a species occurred commonly in both creeks and medium rivers, the habitat listed first and the one used for the analysis was the one where I perceived the majority of the populations to occur. Jeopardized taxa are those protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act plus those that I feel (again with input from colleagues) warrant protected status because of rapidly decreasing size of range or naturally very small and localized range. Reasons for jeopardized status are based on knowledge of the species’ biology, former range, and potentially disruptive anthropogenic activities within that range. For each of the 91 jeopardized species selected for analysis, one or two primary causes were identified as most likely responsible for their jeopardized status. For each identified cause, a score of one was recorded for each species for which it was the only cause identified, and a score of one-half for each species for which it was one of two causes identified. Total scores per cause were divided by 91 to obtain their percentage contribution to jeopardized status of southeastern fishes. While there is a large subjective element associated with assigning habitat preference, determining jeopardized status, and reason(s) for imperilment, I feel that Appendix 1 is sufficiently similar to the data set that would be generated by a consensus of southeastern ichthyologists, such that no major differences in interpretation would occur.

Results And Discussion

The southeastern region treated contains 490 species of native freshwater fishes. Twelve of these species are currently under study, and are believed to consist of two or more species or subspecies in the Southeast. I consider 91 of these 490 species (19 percent) to be jeopardized. An additional 11 species have been considered by others to be deserving of protected status throughout their range. Two species on the list (Lagochila lacera, harelip sucker; Fundulus albolineatus, whiteline topminnow) are conceded to be extinct, and two additional species (Noturus trautmani, Scioto madtom; Etheostoma sellare, Maryland darter) are regarded as probably extinct (Etnier, 1994). Few if any southeastern ichthyologists consider the Alabama sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus suttkusi) to be extinct, in spite of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s recent refusal to list the species because it was presumed to be extinct (U.S. Federal Register, 1994).

Since Tennessee’s fish fauna contains approximately three-fifths of the native freshwater fish fauna of southeastern United States, it is hardly surprising that medium-sized rivers and springs, identified as jeopardized habitats in Tennessee by Etnier and Starnes (1991), again appear to be the habitats that contain a disproportionately large number of jeopardized fishes (Table 1). Creeks are preferred habitats for 51 percent of our southeastern fishes, but contain only 35 percent of the jeopardized species of the region. Lentic habitats contain 14 percent of southeastern fishes, but only three percent of the region’s jeopardized species. Big river, headwater, cave, and diadromous habitats have jeopardized taxa proportional to total taxa that occur in each habitat (Table 1).

 

Table 1. Total and jeopardized amounts of native southeastern freshwater fishes listed according to major habitat preference. 1
Habitat
Number of Species
Percent of Total
Number Jeopardized
Percent of Total Jeopardized
Percent Jeopardized
Big River
45
9
6
7
13
Medium River
90
18
36
40
40
Creek
248
51
32
35
13
Headwaters
16
3
4
4
25
Springs
10
2
7
9
70
Caves
3
1
1
1
33
Lentic
70
14
3
3
4
Diadromous
8
2
2
2
25
Total
490
 
91
 
19
1 Values derived from information contained in Appendix 1.

 

Medium-sized rivers are uncommon relative to creeks, heavily impounded, and have fish communities dominated by species dependent on coarse, silt-free substrates for feeding, reproduction, or both. Springs are noted for high endemism, may be drastically altered due to human demands on the high quality water they contain, and many have been inundated by reservoirs. Creeks (stream orders 3 and 4) continue to be "abundant," many are relatively unperturbed, and they are occupied by fishes that are likely to be equally adept at utilizing headwater streams as temporary refugia and using medium rivers as dispersal routes. Big rivers, such as the Alabama, lower Cumberland, Cape Fear, Mississippi, Ohio, Pee Dee, Roanoke, Santee, Savannah, and Tennessee, are certainly less "common" than medium-sized rivers, but their fish communities are dominated by species tolerant of the fine-grained depositional substrates that predominate in these habitats. Impoundments result in less drastic changes in these big-river habitats, and may actually convert medium-sized river habitats into ones ecologically more similar to those of big rivers. Three of six jeopardized big-river fishes are sturgeons. Lentic habitats, except for oxbows and temporary floodplain ponds along big rivers, have surely increased in abundance in the Southeast coincident with construction of farm ponds and reservoirs. The alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) is treated herein as a big-river species, but its jeopardized status is likely due at least in part to a loss of floodplain waters adjacent to big rivers. As appears to be the case for big rivers, the number of jeopardized diadromous fishes and fish species in headwater streams and caves is approximately proportional to the number of taxa with a preference for these habitats (Table 1).

 

Table 2. Numbers and percents of native southeastern jeopardized fishes by family. 1
Family
Number of Species
Number Jeopardized
Percent Jeopardized
Acipenseridae
6
5
83
Cyprinidae
155
18
12
Catostomidae
35
5
14
Ictaluridae
31
8
26
Fundulidae
20
3
15
Centrarchidae
28
0
0
Percidae
149
46
31
Other Families
66
6
9
Total
490
91
 
1 Values derived from information contained in Appendix 1.

 

When analyzed by family (Table 2), the results are again virtually identical to those reported by Etnier and Starnes (1991). Catfishes (Ictaluridae) and percids (Percidae) have 26 percent and 31 percent of their species jeopardized, respectively — well above the overall 19 percent of southeastern fish species that are jeopardized. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with five out of six taxa jeopardized, were apparently capable of coping nicely with changes that occurred since the late Cretaceous (about 70 million years), until the past half century of dam construction and utilization of big rivers as silt and waste conduits jeopardized nearly the entire family. At the other extreme, the large and primarily lentic family Centrarchidae (sunfishes) contains no jeopardized taxa.

Catfishes (31 species) and percids (150 species) are well-represented in the Southeast, and contain 46 of 91 (51 percent) jeopardized southeastern fish species, but only 37 percent of southeastern native freshwater fishes. If these two families, or percids alone, have a disproportionately high number of taxa with a medium-sized river or spring habitat preference, the conclusion that we have been particularly abusive to spring and medium-river habitats may be unjustified, and an artifact of habitat preference of jeopardized families. Should this be the case, there must be something about the biology of catfishes and/or percids that results in their being susceptible to jeopardization. Nine of 31 catfishes (29 percent) and 36 of 149 percids (24 percent) are associated with medium-river habitats (data from Appendix 1). Both percentages are well above the overall mean of only 18 percent of all southeastern fishes with a medium-river habitat preference. On the other hand, 17 of 36 percids (47 percent) and four of nine catfishes (44 percent) with medium-river habitats are jeopardized. These figures are well above the overall 31 percent of percid and 26 percent of catfish species jeopardized in the Southeast. This indicates that there is both a familial and a preferred habitat aspect to imperilment, and the combined effect of these two variables has resulted in the large number of catfishes and percids that are jeopardized. All jeopardized catfish are madtoms, and all jeopardized percids are darters. Specialized reproductive behavior (both families), high endemism (darters), and high sensitivity to olfactory pollution (madtoms) have been suggested as contributing to the high percentages of jeopardized taxa in these groups (Etnier and Starnes, 1991).

 

Table 3. Percent contribution of various factors toward jeopardizing native southeastern freshwater fishes. 1
Factor
Percent Contribution
Nonpoint-source pollution
40
Alteration of water flow
32
Small native range
23
Introduction of exotics
2
Point-source pollution
2
Overzealous collectors
0
Unknown
1
1 Values derived from information contained in Appendix 1.

 

Since only ten species have a habitat preference for springs, and these ten represent six different families, the conclusion that spring habitats have been jeopardized is inescapable. Only three percids were classified as spring inhabitants; all three are jeopardized.

As mentioned above, five of six southeastern sturgeon species are jeopardized. All are either anadromous or have big-river habitats. Impoundments have certainly been the major cause for their plight, either by blocking migratory routes (anadromous species), by blanketing spawning areas with silt in combination with the aforementioned factor (Acipenser fulvescens, Scaphirhynchus suttkusi), or by drastically altering flow regimes (Scaphirhynchus albus).

Factors contributing to the jeopardized status of southeastern native freshwater fishes are indicated in Appendix 1 and are summarized in Table 3. Based on these data, the combination of nonpoint-source pollution (primarily siltation) and alteration of flow regimes (primarily impoundment) are anthropogenic factors responsible for 72 percent of fish imperilment problems in the Southeast. A non-anthropogenic factor that contributes 23 percent to causes of jeopardization is high endemism (small native range). Point-source pollution and introduction of exotic fish species (less than two percent for each) have been far less influential. It should be noted that a similar analysis in western North America, especially the Southwest, likely would result differently and indicate exotic species introductions to rival alteration of flow regimes and exceed siltation in importance in contributing to jeopardized status of native fishes of that area. As an ichthyologist, fisherman, and former mentor of many students now associated with the aquarium hobby, it is reassuring for me to find that activities of people of these persuasions apparently have not resulted in jeopardizing native southeastern fish species.

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank the two anonymous reviewers of this paper, whose considerable efforts resulted in significant improvements.

References

Etnier, D. A. 1994. Our southeastern fishes — what have we lost and what are we likely to lose. Proceedings of the Southeastern Fishes Council 29:5-9.
Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1991. An analysis of Tennessee’s jeopardized fish taxa. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 66:129-133.
Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.
Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1993. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea, and W. B. Scott. 1991. A List of the Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada. Special Publication 20, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
U.S. Federal Register. 1994. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; withdrawal of proposed rule for endangered status and critical habitat for the Alabama sturgeon. U.S. Federal Register 59(240):64794-64809.
Appendix 1. Jeopardized southeastern fishes, their preferred habitat, and reason for jeopardized status. Preferred habitats were determined subjectively by the author with input from colleagues. Jeopardized fishes (and associated data) are listed in boldface, reason for jeopardized status was determined subjectively by the author with input from colleagues. Additional species whose status has been considered as jeopardized by other workers are indicated with a question mark in the status column, but were not treated as jeopardized in this analysis. Preferred habitats are as follows: BR = big river, MR = medium river, CR = creeks, HW = headwaters (orders 1 and 2), SP = springs, CA = caves, LE = lentic, DI = diadromous. MR/CR = medium river is my best guess, but some uncertainty is involved (treated as MR in analysis). Under the "Reason for Status column: NPSP = nonpoint-source pollution, PSP = point-source pollution, Altered Flow = altered flow regimes such as impoundment or rechanneling, Small Range = taxa under no current threat but with a range so small that a single accident could result in federal threatened or endangered status, Exotics = taxa jeopardized due to introduced fish species. Area covered in this analysis includes: Ohio River and all of its tributaries, the Susquehanna River drainage, and south from there to the Gulf of Mexico, then west to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Marine and euryhaline fishes, such as Trinectes maculatus and Cyprinodon variegatus, respectively, are not included. Species preceded with an asterisk are currently considered to be complexes of two to several species or subspecies. 1
Taxon
Preferred Habitat
Reason for Status
Petromyzontidae
Ichthyomyzon bdellium
MR
 
I. castaneus
MR
 
I. fossor
CR
 
I. gagei
CR
 
I. greeleyi
CR
 
I. unicuspis
MR
 
Lampetra aepyptera
CR
 
L. appendix
CR
 
Acipenseridae
Acipenser brevirostrum
DI
Altered Flow
A. fulvescens
BR
Altered Flow
A. oxyrhynchus
DI
Altered Flow
Scaphirhynchus albus
BR
Altered Flow
S. platorynchus
BR
 
S. suttkusi
BR
Altered Flow
Polyodontidae
Polyodon spathula
BR
 
Lepisosteidae
Atractosteus spatula
BR/LE
Altered Flow
Lepisosteus oculatus
LE
 
L. osseus
BR
 
L. platostomus
BR
 
L. platyrhyncus
LE
 
Amiidae
Amia calva
LE
 
Hiodontidae
Hiodon alosoides
BR
 
H. tergisus
MR/BR
 
Anguillidae
Anguilla rostrata
DI
 
Clupeidae
Alosa aestivalis
DI
 
A. alabamae
BR
Altered Flow
A. chrysochloris
BR
 
A. mediocris
DI
 
A. pseudoharengus
DI
 
A. sapidissima
DI
 
Dorosoma cepedianum
MR/BR
 
D. petenense
LE/BR
 
Cyprinidae
*Campostoma anomalum
CR
 
C. oligolepis
CR
 
C. pauciradii
CR
 
Clinostomus elongatus
CR
 
C. funduloides
CR
 
Clinostomus sp., smoky dace
CR
 
Cyprinella analostana
CR
 
C. caerulea
MR/CR
NPSP
C. callisema
MR
NPSP
C. callistia
CR
 
C. callitaenia
MR
NPSP
C. camura
CR
 
C. chloristia
CR
 
C. galactura
CR
 
C. gibbsi
CR
 
C. labrosa
CR
 
C. leedsi
MR
 
C. lutrensis
CR
 
C. monacha
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
C. nivea
CR/MR
 
C. pyrrhomelas
CR
 
C. spiloptera
CR
 
C. trichroistia
CR
 
C. venusta
CR
 
C. whipplei
MR
 
C. xaenura
CR/MR
NPSP
C. zanema
CR
 
Cyprinella sp. cf. zanema
CR
 
Ericymba buccata
CR
 
Erimystax cahni
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
E. dissimilis
MR
 
E. insignis
CR
 
E. x-punctatus
MR
 
Exoglossum laurae
CR
 
E. maxillingua
CR
 
Hemitremia flammea
SP
?
Hybognathus argyritis
BR
 
H. hayi
LE
 
H. nuchalis
BR
 
H. placitus
BR
 
H. regius
BR
 
Hybopsis amblops
CR
 
H. amnis
MR
 
H. hypsinotus
CR
 
H. lineapunctata
CR
 
H. rubrifrons
CR
 
H. winchelli
CR/MR
 
Hybopsis sp. cf. winchelli
CR
 
Luxilus albeolus
CR
 
L. cerasinus
CR
 
L. chrysocephalus
CR
 
L. coccogenis
CR
 
L. cornutus
CR
 
L. zonistius
CR
 
*Lythrurus ardens
CR
 
L. atrapiculus
CR
 
L. bellus
CR
 
L. fumeus
CR
 
L. lirus
CR
 
L. roseipinnis
CR
 
L. umbratilis
CR
 
Macrhybopsis aestivalis (Mississippi River)
BR
 
Macrhybopsis sp. cf. aestivalis
(Tennessee River)
MR
Altered Flow
Macrhybopsis sp. cf aestivalis
(Mobile River)
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
M. gelida
BR
?
M. meeki
BR
?
M. storeriana
BR
 
Margariscus margarita
LE
 
Nocomis biguttatus
CR
 
N. effusus
CR
 
N. leptocephalus
CR
 
N. micropogon
CR
 
N. platyrhynchus
CR
 
N. raneyi
CR
 
Notemigonus crysoleucas
LE
 
Notropis alborus
CR
 
N. altipinnis
CR
 
N. albizonatus
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
N. ammophilus
CR
 
N. amoenus
CR
 
N. ariommus
MR
?
N. asperifrons
CR
 
N. atherinoides
BR
 
N. baileyi
CR
 
N. bifrenatus
CR
?
N. blennius
BR
 
N. boops
CR
 
N. buchanani
BR
 
N. cahabae
MR
NPSP
N. candidus
BR
 
N. chalybaeus
CR
 
N. chiliticus
CR
 
N. chlorocephalus
CR
 
N. chrosomus
HW/CR
 
N. cummingsae
CR
 
N. dorsalis
CR
 
N. edwardraneyi
BR
 
N. euryzonus
CR
 
N. harperi
SP
 
N. heterolepis
LE/CR
 
N. hudsonius
CR/LE
 
N. hypselopterus
CR
 
N. hypsilepis
CR
 
*N. leuciodus
CR
 
N. longirostris
CR
 
N. lutipinnis
CR
 
N. maculatus
LE
 
N. mekistocholas
CR/MR
NPSP
N. melanostomus
LE
?
N. petersoni
CR
 
N. photogenis
MR
 
N. potteri
BR
 
N. procne
CR
 
N. rafinesquei
CR
 
*N. rubellus
CR/MR
 
N. rubricroceus
CR
 
N. rupestris
CR
Small Range
N. sabinae
CR
 
N. scabriceps
CR
 
N. scepticus
CR
 
N. semperasper
CR/MR
 
Notropis sp., sawfin shiner
MR
 
N. shumardi
BR
 
N. signipinnis
HW/CR
 
N. spectrunculus
CR
 
N. stilbius
CR
 
N. stramineus
CR
 
N. telescopus
CR
 
N. texanus
CR
 
N. uranoscopus
CR/MR
 
N. volucellus
CR/MR
 
N. welaka
LE/CR
 
N. wickliffi
BR
 
N. xaenocephalus
CR
 
Opsopoeodus emiliae
LE
 
Phenacobius catostomus
CR/MR
 
P. crassilabrum
CR
 
P. mirabilis
CR
 
P. teretulus
CR/MR
 
P. uranops
MR
 
Phoxinus cumberlandensis
HW
NPSP
P. erythrogaster
HW
 
P. oreas
CR
 
P. tennesseensis
HW
NPSP
Phoxinus sp. cf. erythrogaster
HW
Small Range
Pimephales notatus
CR
 
P. promelas
LE
 
P. vigilax
BR
 
Platygobio gracilis
BR/MR
 
Rhinichthys atratulus
HW
 
R. cataractae
CR
 
Semotilus atromaculatus
HW
 
S. corporalis
CR
 
S. lumbee
HW
Small Range
S. thoreauianus
HW
 
Catostomidae
Carpiodes carpio
BR
 
C. cyprinus
BR
 
C. velifer
MR
 
Catostomus commersoni
HW
 
Cycleptus elongatus
BR/MR
Altered Flow
Erimyzon oblongus
CR
 
E. succeta
LE
 
E. tenuis
CR
 
Hypentelium etowanum
CR
 
H. nigricans
CR
 
H. roanokense
CR
 
Ictiobus bubalus
BR/MR
 
I. cyprinellus
BR
 
I. niger
BR
 
Lagochila lacera
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
Minytrema melanops
MR
 
Moxostoma anisurum
MR
 
M. ariommum
CR
 
M. atripinne
CR
Small Range
M. carinatum
MR
 
M. cervinum
CR
 
M. duquesnei
CR
 
M. erythrurum
CR
 
Moxostoma sp. cf. poecilurum
CR/MR
 
M. hamiltoni
CR
 
M. lachneri
CR
 
M. macrolepidotum
MR
 
M. pappilosum
CR/MR
 
M. poecilurum
CR
 
M. rhothoecum
CR
 
M. robustum
MR
Exotics, Altered Flow
M. rupiscartes
CR
 
M. valenciennesi
MR/CR
 
Moxostoma sp., brassy jumprock
CR
 
Moxostoma sp., sicklefin redhorse
MR/CR
Altered Flow
Ictaluridae
Ameiurus brunneus
CR
 
A. catus
MR
 
A. melas
LE
 
A. natalis
LE
 
A. nebulosus
LE
 
A. platycephalus
CR
 
A. serracanthus
MR
 
Ictalurus furcatus
BR
 
I. punctatus
MR/BR
 
Noturus baileyi
CR
Small Range, PSP
*N. elegans
CR
 
N. eleutherus
MR
 
N. exilis
CR
 
N. flavipinnis
CR
NPSP
*N. flavus
MR/CR
 
N. funebris
CR
 
N. furiosus
MR
NPSP
N. gilberti
CR/MR
NPSP
N. gyrinus
LE
 
N. hildebrandi
CR
 
N. insignis
CR
 
N. leptacanthus
CR
 
N. miurus
CR
 
N. munitus
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
N. nocturnus
CR
 
N. phaeus
CR
 
N. stanauli
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
N. stigmosus
MR
NPSP
N. trautmani
CR/MR
Small Range, NPSP
Noturus sp., broadtail madtom
LE
 
Pylodictis olivaris
BR
 
Esocidae
Esox americanus
LE
 
E. lucius
LE
 
E. masquinongy (southeastern races)
MR
?
E. niger
LE
 
Umbridae
Umbra limi
LE
 
U. pygmaea
LE
 
Salmonidae
Salvelinus fontinalis (Southeast)
HW
?
Percopsidae
Percopsis omiscomaycus
MR
 
Aphredoderidae
Aphredoderus sayanus
LE
 
Amblyopsidae
Amblyopsis spelaea
CA
?
Chologaster cornuta
LE
 
Forbesichthys agassizi
SP
 
Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni
CA
Small Range
Typhlichthys subterraneus
CA
 
Gadidae
Lota lota
MR
 
Cyprinodontidae
Jordanella floridae
LE
 
Fundulidae
Fundulus albolineatus
SP
Small Range, PSP
F. auroguttatus
LE
 
F. bifax
CR
 
F. catenatus
CR
 
F. chrysotus
LE
 
F. diaphanus
LE
 
F. dispar
LE
 
F. escambiae
LE
 
F. euryzonus
CR
 
F. julisia
SP
NPSP
F. lineolatus
LE
 
F. notatus
CR
 
F. notti
LE
 
F. olivaceus
CR
 
F. rathbuni
CR
 
F. seminolis
CR
 
F. stellifer
CR
 
F. waccamensis
LE
Small Range, NPSP
Leptolucania ommata
LE
 
Lucania goodei
LE
 
Poeciliidae
Gambusia affinis
LE
 
G. holbrooki
LE
 
Heterandria formosa
LE
 
Atherinidae
Labidesthes sicculus
MR
 
Menidia beryllina
BR
 
M. extensa
LE
Small Range, NPSP
Gasterosteidae
Culaea inconstans
LE
 
Cottidae
Cottus baileyi
CR
 
*C. bairdi
CR
 
C. carolinae
CR
 
C. cognatus
CR
 
C. pygmaeus
SP
Small Range
*Cottus sp., broadband sculpin
MR/CR
 
Moronidae
Morone americanus
LE/MR
 
M. chrysops
BR
 
M. mississippiensis
LE/BR
 
M. saxatilis
DI
 
Elassomatidae
Elassoma alabamae
SP
Altered Flow, NPSP
E. boehlkei
LE
?
E. evergladei
LE
 
E. okatie
LE
?
E. okefenokee
LE
 
E. zonatum
LE
 
Centrarchidae
Acantharchus pomotis
LE
 
Ambloplites ariommus
MR
 
A. cavifrons
MR
?
A. rupestris
MR
 
Centrarchus macropterus
LE
 
Enneacanthus chaetodon
LE
 
E. gloriosus
LE
 
E. obesus
LE
 
Lepomis auritus
CR
 
L. cyanellus
CR
 
L. gibbosus
LE
 
L. gulosus
MR
 
L. humilis
LE
 
L. macrochirus
LE
 
L. marginatus
LE
 
L. megalotis
CR
 
L. microlophus
LE
 
L. miniatus
LE
 
L. punctatus
LE
 
L. symmetricus
LE
 
Micropterus sp., shoal bass
MR
 
M. coosae
CR
 
M. dolomieu
MR
 
M. notius
MR
 
M. punctulatus
MR
 
M. salmoides
LE
 
Pomoxis annularis
LE
 
P. nigromaculatus
LE
 
Percidae
Ammocrypta beani
CR/MR
 
A. bifascia
MR/CR
 
A. clara
MR
 
A. meridiana
MR/CR
 
A. pellucida
MR/CR
 
A. vivax
CR/MR
 
Crystallaria asprella
MR
Altered Flow
Etheostoma acuticeps
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
Etheostoma (Doration) sp.
(Caney Fork)
CR/MR
Small Range, NPSP
E. aquali
MR
Small Range, NPSP
E. asprigene
BR
 
E. baileyi
CR
 
E. barbouri
CR
 
E. barrenense
CR
 
*E. bellator
CR
 
E. bellum
CR
 
*E. blennioides
CR
 
E. blennius
CR
 
E. boschungi
CR
Altered Flow, NPSP
*E. brevirostrum
CR
Altered Flow, NPSP
E. caeruleum
CR
 
E. camurum
MR/CR
 
E. chermocki
CR
Small Range
E. chienense
CR
Small Range, NPSP
E. chlorobranchium
CR
 
E. chlorosomum
MR/BR
 
E. chuckwachatte
CR
NPSP, Small Range
E. cinereum
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
E. collis
CR
 
E. colorosum
CR
 
E. coosae
CR
 
E. corona
CR
Small Range, NPSP
E. crossopterum
CR
 
E. davisoni
CR
 
E. ditrema
SP
NPSP, Altered Flow
E. douglasi
CR
NPSP
E. duryi
CR
 
E. edwini
CR
 
E. etnieri
CR
 
E. etowahae
CR
NPSP
E. exile
LE
 
E. flabellare
CR
 
E. flavum
CR
 
E. forbesi
CR
Small Range, NPSP
E. fricksium
CR
 
E. fusiforme
LE
 
E. gracile
CR
 
E. histrio
BR/MR
 
E. hopkinsi
CR
 
E. inscriptum
CR
 
E. jessiae
CR
 
E. jordani
CR/MR
 
E. kanawhae
CR
 
E. kennicotti
CR
 
E. lachneri
CR
 
E. longimanum
CR
 
E. luteovinctum
CR
 
E. lynceum
CR
 
E. maculatum
MR
Altered Flow
E. mariae
CR
Small Range
E. microlepidum
MR
Altered Flow
E. microperca
CR
 
E. neopterum
CR
Small Range
E. nigripinne
CR
 
E. nigrum
CR
 
E. nuchale
SP
NPSP, Altered Flow
E. obeyense
CR
 
E. okaloosae
CR
Exotics, Small Range
E. olivaceum
CR
Small Range
E. olmstedi
CR
 
E. oophylax
CR
 
E. osburni
CR
NPSP
E. parvipinne
HW
 
Etheostoma percnurum
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
E. podostemone
CR
 
E. proeliare
LE
 
E. pseudovulatum
CR
Small Range
E. pyrrhogaster
CR
NPSP, Altered Flow
E. rafinesquei
CR
 
E. ramseyi
CR
 
E. raneyi
CR
NPSP
E. rubrum
CR/MR
Small Range, NPSP
E. rufilineatum
CR
 
E. rupestre
CR/MR
 
E. sagitta
HW
?
E. sanguifluum
MR
 
E. scotti
CR
NPSP
E. sellare
CR/MR
Exotics, Small Range
E. serrifer
LE
 
E. simoterum
CR
 
E. smithi
CR
 
*E. spectabile
HW
 
E. squamiceps
CR
 
*E. stigmaeum
CR
 
E. striatulum
CR
NPSP, Small Range
E. swaini
CR
 
E. swannanoa
CR
 
E. tallapoosae
CR
 
E. thalassinum
CR
 
E. tippecanoe
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
E. trisella
CR
Altered Flow
E. tuscumbia
SP
Altered Flow, PSP
E. variatum
CR
 
E. virgatum
CR
 
E. vitreum
CR
 
E. vulneratum
MR
 
E. wapiti
MR
Altered Flow
E. whipplei
HW
 
E. zonale
CR
 
E. zonifer
CR
 
*E. zonistium
CR
 
Perca flavescens
LE
 
Percina antesella
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
P. aurantiaca
MR
 
P. aurolineata
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
P. aurora
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
P. austroperca
CR
 
P. brevicauda
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
P. burtoni
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
P. caprodes
CR/MR
 
P. copelandi
MR
 
P. crassa
CR
 
P. evides
MR/CR
 
Percina (Alvordius) sp., bridled darter
MR/CR
NPSP, Small Range
P. gymnocephala
CR
 
P. jenkinsi
MR
Small Range
P. lenticula
MR
Altered Flow, NPSP
P. macrocephala
MR
NPSP, Altered Flow
P. maculata
CR
 
P. nigrofasciata
CR/MR
 
P. notogramma
CR
 
P. oxyrhynchus
MR
 
P. palmaris
MR/CR
 
P. peltata
CR
 
P. phoxocephala
MR
 
P. rex
MR
NPSP, Small Range
P. roanoka
CR
 
P. sciera
CR
 
P. shumardi
BR
 
P. squamata
MR
 
P. stictogaster
CR/MR
?
P. tanasi
MR
Altered Flow
P. uranidea
MR
 
P. vigil
CR
 
Percina (Hadropterus) sp.
(Chattahoochee River)
CR/MR
 
Percina (Percina) sp. (Coosa River, etc)
CR/MR
 
Percina (Percina) sp. (Gulf Coast)
CR
 
Stizostedion canadense
BR
 
S. vitreum
BR
 
Sciaenidae
Aplodinotus grunniens
BR
 
1 DATA SUMMARY: 490 taxa, 91 jeopardized taxa. Habitat summary (number of total taxa:number of jeopardized taxa): Big River = 45:6, Medium River = 90:36, Creeks = 248:32, Headwaters = 16:4, Springs = 10:7, Caves = 3:1, Lentic = 70:3, Diadromous = 8:2. Family summary (number of total taxa:numbers of jeopardized taxa): Acipenseridae = 6:5, Cyprinidae = 155:18, Catostomidae = 35:5, Ictaluridae = 31:8, Fundulidae = 20:3, Centrarchidae = 28:0, Percidae = 150:46.

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